This risk calculator is for patients who have been deemed to be suitable candidates for biopsy by their urologist. This means that, for instance, they have been evaluated to see if their PSA level is due to a disease other than cancer, such having an enlarged prostate, a common problem in older men. If you have not been evaluated by your urologist and told that you are a good candidate for biopsy, the risk calculator will likely ovestimate your risk of having prostate cancer


Neumair, M., Kattan, M.W., Freedland, S.J. et al. Accommodating heterogeneous missing data patterns for prostate cancer risk prediction. BMC Med Res Methodol 22, 200 (2022).

Information about calculator input

Prostate Specific Antigen Level (PSA)

This is the result, in nanograms per mililiter, of the PSA blood test. PSA has to be between 2 and 50 [ng/ml].

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

Digital Rectal Examination is a test performed by a health care professional in which a gloved finger is placed in the rectum to feel the surface of the prostate. It is normal if the prostate is smooth and soft. It is abnormal if an area of firmness or a nodule is noted.

African ancestry

Choose Yes if you are black or African American.


Choose Yes if you are of Hispanic ethnicity.

Prior Prostate Biopsy

Past Negative Biopsy: One or more prior biopsies, all negative, no prior diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Prior PSA

Choose Yes if you had a prior PSA measurement before the current one, independent of the result.

Family history

First-degree: Choose Yes if a father, brother, or son had prostate cancer.

Second-degree: Choose Yes if a grandfather, uncle, nephew, or half-brother had prostate cancer.

Breast cancer: Choose Yes if a mother, sister, or daughter had breast cancer.


5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are a group of drugs that are used in the treatment of an enlarged prostate gland. Choose Yes if you take them.

Note: The Calculator is only applicable for persons without a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer.

For help please contact [email protected]

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